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Jumat, 01 Agustus 2014

Mengukur Karakter Sosial Ekonomi Organisasi Petani


Socioeconomic characteristics of the farmer organizations diukur melalui TIGA kelompok variabel berikut:

Satu, Market access variables. Diukur atas jaraknya terhadap 3 variabel yaitu jarak ke jalan utama (To the main road), jarak ke pasar desa (To village market), dan jarak ke pasar utama (To main market)

Dua, Group characteristics. Karakter kelompok diukur dari 4 variabel yaitu: umur kelompok (Age of group) dalma tahun,  ukuran kelompok (Size of the group) yakni berapa orang anggotanya, rata-ratap penidikan anggotanya (Mean members education) dalam tahun, dan umur dari pimpinan kelompok (Age of leader) dalam tahun.

Tiga, Social capital indicators (indikator modal sosial) yang dikukur dalam %. Ada 6 variabel yang dikumpulkan disini yaitu: Density of membership, Group diversity index, Decision-making index, Solidarity index, Meeting attendance, dan Trust index.

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Mengukur Social Capital


Social capital = dimaknasi sebagai groups, jaringan, norma dan kepercayaan yang dimiliki untuk kegiatan-kegiatan produktif.

Ada banyak cara mengukur modal sosial. Sebagai contoh Grootaert (C. Grootaert, Does social capital help the poor?, A synthesis of findings from the local level institutions studies in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, and Indonesia, Local Level Institutions Working Paper No. 10, World Bank, Social Development Department, Washington D.C, 2001), membedakan antara structural and cognitive social capital.

Indikator structural social capital = mencakup density of membership to local associations, diversity of members in the rural producer organizations, frequency of attendance to rural producer organization’s meeting and level of democracy in decision making.

Density of membership diukur dari jumlah local associations dimana rumah-rumah tangga menjadi anggotanya. Internal diversity of the organization diukur dengan 7 kriteria yaitu = diversity in neighborhood, family/ kinship group, age, denomination, income group, gender and tribe. Frekuensi kehadiran dalam pertemuan kelompok menggunakan 3 skala = “never”, “sometimes” and “always”.

Tingkat demokratis pembuatan keputusan = apakah diputuskan hanya oleh pengurus, atau melibatkan anggota. Pilihannya adalah  “decisions made by management only”, “decisions made by management in consultation with members” and “decisions made by members consensus”.

Indikator cognitive social capital = berupa trust and solidarity antar anggota.

Kepercayaan = diukur dalam hal yang umum dan khusus. Hal umum dengan melemparkan pertanyaan: apakah anda percaya kepada sebagian besar orang di kelompok ini? Untuk yang khusus diduga melalui pertanyaan dengan terhadap berbagai pihak yaitu = dalam keluarga, fellow farmers, pemimpin agama, anggota rural producer organizations, pimpinan politik, pedagang, dna teman-teman.

Level of solidarity = what the household would receive or give out in times of famine. Five items that the household would help other needy households with or receive during drought or famine are seed, grain, other food items (including cooked food), clothes and cash.

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Minggu, 01 September 2013

National Green Performance Index



Category
Indicator
Weighting
Description/source
Leadership (15%)
-Head of State
 
-Media Coverage
 
-International Forums
 
 
-International Aid
15%
 
10%
 
55%
 
 
20%
Head of State’s advocacy for green issues
Google Trends/Analytics, Dual Citizen Inc. Research
Positive media coverage of national green economy
Google Trends/Analytics, Dual Citizen Inc. Research
National positions & statements in international forums
Earth Negotiations Bulletin, Climate Action Network (ECO), UNFCCC Reporting
Commitment to sustainability in aid programs
Commitment to Development Index (Center for Global Development)
 
Policy (35%)
-Commitment to Renewable Energy
-Clean Energy Policies
-Emissions
-Renewable Energy Goals
20%
 
25%
 
40%
15%
Current/2020 renewables share of final energy
Eurostat; National Reporting
Adoption of best practice policies
Scored by Dual Citizen Inc. on scale of 0-10
National emissions trending
2012 Environmental Performance Index (Yale)
Progress towards renewable goals
Eurostat; National Reporting
Cleantech
Investment (35%)
-Investment Volume
-Cleantech Commercialization
-Cleantech Innovation
-Investment Facilitation
30%
30%
 
30%
10%
Recent investment volume in clean energy
Who’s Winning the Clean Energy Race? (Pew)
Business climate for cleantech commercialization
Cleantech Group reporting, Cleantech matters (Ernst & Young)
Business climate for cleantech innovation
Global Cleantech Innovation Index (2012), The Clean Energy Patent Growth Index (2011)
Strength of green investment & export promotion
Scored by Dual Citizen Inc. on scale of 0-10
Suatainable tourism (15%)
-Travel & Tourism Competitiveness
-Accreditation Schemes
-Ministry Evaluation
45%
45%
10%
Country competitiveness in sustainable tourism
Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report (WEF)
Presence & strength of national schemes
Destinet, Dual Citizen Inc. Research
Strength of green tourism promotion
Scored by Dual Citizen Inc. on scale of 0-10


Sumber: http://www.dualcitizeninc.com/ggei2012.pdf

Kriteria Kelompok Usaha di Indonesia :



Kelompok usaha
Nilai omzet usaha (Rp/tahun)
Nilai asset (Rp)
 
1.       Usaha mikro
 
Kecil dari 300 juta
 
50 juta
2.       Usaha kecil
300 juta - 2,5 milyar
50 - 500 juta
3.       Usaha menengah
2,5 – 50 milyar
500 juta – 10 milyar
4.       Usaha besar
Lebih dari 50 milyar
Lebih dari 10 milyar


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Rabu, 08 Mei 2013

Index of Economic Well-being


(sumber: http://www.csls.ca/iwb.asp)

Indeks kesejahteraan ekonomi ini terdiri atas 4 kelompok aspek dengan masing-masing indikator sebagai berikut:

Global food security index 2012: A report from the Economist Intelligence Unit

(Indeks ketahanan pangan Dunia tahun 2012)

1. Affordability

1.1 Food consumption as a share of household
expenditure
1.2 Proportion of population under the global
poverty line
1.3 Gross domestic product per capita
1.4 Agricultural import tariffs
1.5 Presence of food safety net programmes
1.6 Access to fi nancing for farmers

2. Availability

2.1 Suffi ciency of supply (Average food supply in kcal/capita/day, and Dependency on chronic food aid)
2.2 Public expenditure on agricultural research
and development
2.3 Agricultural infrastructure (Existence of adequate crop storage facilities, Road infrastructure, and Port infrastructure)
2.4 Volatility of agricultural production
2.5 Political stability risk

3. Quality and safety

3.1 Diet diversifi cation
3.2 Nutritional standards (National dietary guidelines, National nutrition plan or strategy, and Nutrition monitoring and surveillance)
3.3 Micronutrient availability (Dietary availability of vitamin A, Dietary availability of animal iron, and Dietary availability of vegetal iron)
3.4 Protein quality
3.5 Food safety (Agency to ensure the safety and health of food, Percent of population with access to potable water, and Presence of formal grocery sector)

(sumber: http://www.multivu.com/players/English/56895-eiu-global-food-security-index-dupont/flexSwf/impAsset/document/f28e36b5-0ba3-4764-801c-2cc353f4b717.pdf)

Global Food Security Index

1.    Affordability

·         Food consumption as a share of household expenditure
·         Proportion of population under global poverty line
·         Gross domestic product per capita
·         Agricultural import tariffs
·         Presence of food safety net programs
·         Access to farmer financing

2.    Availability
·         Sufficiency of supply
·         Public expenditure on agricultural R&D
·         Agricultural infrastructure
·         Volitility of agricultural production
·         Political instability

3.    Quality and safety


·         Diet diversification
·         Nutritional standards
·         Micronutrient availability
·         Protein quality
·         Food safety

(Sumber: http://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com/)