Total Tayangan Laman

Jumat, 01 Agustus 2014

Mengukur Social Capital


Social capital = dimaknasi sebagai groups, jaringan, norma dan kepercayaan yang dimiliki untuk kegiatan-kegiatan produktif.

Ada banyak cara mengukur modal sosial. Sebagai contoh Grootaert (C. Grootaert, Does social capital help the poor?, A synthesis of findings from the local level institutions studies in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, and Indonesia, Local Level Institutions Working Paper No. 10, World Bank, Social Development Department, Washington D.C, 2001), membedakan antara structural and cognitive social capital.

Indikator structural social capital = mencakup density of membership to local associations, diversity of members in the rural producer organizations, frequency of attendance to rural producer organization’s meeting and level of democracy in decision making.

Density of membership diukur dari jumlah local associations dimana rumah-rumah tangga menjadi anggotanya. Internal diversity of the organization diukur dengan 7 kriteria yaitu = diversity in neighborhood, family/ kinship group, age, denomination, income group, gender and tribe. Frekuensi kehadiran dalam pertemuan kelompok menggunakan 3 skala = “never”, “sometimes” and “always”.

Tingkat demokratis pembuatan keputusan = apakah diputuskan hanya oleh pengurus, atau melibatkan anggota. Pilihannya adalah  “decisions made by management only”, “decisions made by management in consultation with members” and “decisions made by members consensus”.

Indikator cognitive social capital = berupa trust and solidarity antar anggota.

Kepercayaan = diukur dalam hal yang umum dan khusus. Hal umum dengan melemparkan pertanyaan: apakah anda percaya kepada sebagian besar orang di kelompok ini? Untuk yang khusus diduga melalui pertanyaan dengan terhadap berbagai pihak yaitu = dalam keluarga, fellow farmers, pemimpin agama, anggota rural producer organizations, pimpinan politik, pedagang, dna teman-teman.

Level of solidarity = what the household would receive or give out in times of famine. Five items that the household would help other needy households with or receive during drought or famine are seed, grain, other food items (including cooked food), clothes and cash.

*****