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Rabu, 07 September 2011

Indikator kunci menilai KEMISKINAN dan Ekslusi Sosial

New Policy Institute Key Indicators of Poverty and Social Exclusion,
Indikator kunci dalam menilai kemiskinan dan ekslusi sosial bisa dilihat pada berbagai level, mulai dari individu sampai ke komunitas. Selengkapnya indikator yang kudu dilihat adalah :


  1. Gap between low and median income, jarak antara pendapatan terendah dengan menengah

  2. Individuals with below 50% of average income, jumlah orang yang pendapatan rata-ratanya dibawah 50 persen

  3. Individuals with below 40% of average income,
  4. jumlah orang yang pendapatan rata-ratanya dibawah 40 persen

  5. Long-term recipients of benefits

  6. Individuals with spells of low income

  7. Self-reported difficulty managing financially

  1. Children living in workless households

  2. Children living in households with below 50% average income

  3. Low birthweight babies

  4. Accidental deaths

  5. Pupils gaining no GCSE grade C or above

  6. Permanently excluded from school

  7. Children whose parents divorce

  8. Births to girls conceiving under age 16

  9. Children in young offenders’ institutions
Young Adults, pada dewasa muda, indikatornya adalah:

  1. Unemployed, menganggur

  2. On low rates of pay

  3. On severe hardship payments

  4. Starting drug treatment

  5. Suicide, bunuh diri

  6. Without basic qualification (at 19), tanpa kemampuan dasar

  7. With a criminal record (at 23), memiliki catatan kejahatan

Adults, untuk kelompok dewasa

  1. Individuals wanting paid work

  2. Households without work for 2 years or more

  3. On low rates of pay

  4. Insecure in employment

  5. Without access to training

  6. Premature death

  7. Limiting long-standing illness or disability

  8. Depression

Older People, untuk kalangan orang yang lebih tua

  1. Pensioners with no private income

  2. Spending on essentials

  3. Limiting long-standing illness or disability

  4. Anxiety

  5. Help from social services to live at home

  6. Without a telephone

Communities, kalo untuk mengukurnya di level komunitas, indikator yang digunakan adalah:

  1. Polarisation of work, bagaimana polarisasi sosial karena perbedaan pekerjaan terjadi

  2. Spending on travel of poorest, relative to middle income

  3. Lacking a bank or building society account

  4. Non-participation in civic organisations

  5. Dissatisfaction with local area

  6. Vulnerability to crime

  7. Homes lacking central heating

  8. Households in temporary accommodation

  9. Overcrowding

  10. Mortgage arrears