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Rabu, 24 Agustus 2011

Mengukur Keberdayaan Perempuan (women's empowerment approach)

Menurut Hashemi et al (1996), indikatornya adalah :

• mobility; economic security;
• ability to make small purchases;
• ability to make larger purchases;
• involvement in major household decisions;
• relative freedom from domination within the family;
• political and legal awareness;
• and involvement in political campaigning and protests.

Menurut CIDA (The Canadian International Development Agency), indicators of women's empowerment adalah:

• How have changes in national/ local legislation empowered or disempowered women or men (e.g. concerning control over resources such as land)?
• What is the role of local institutions in empowering/disempowering women/men?
• Is the part women as compared to men, are playing in major decisions in their locality/household increasing or decreasing?
• Is there more acknowledgement of the importance of tasks customarily carried out by women, e.g. child care?
• How are women organising to increase their empowerment, for example against violence?
• If employment and education for women are increasing, is this leading to greater

CIDA's indicators of empowerment

Legal empowerment indicators include:
• the enforcement of legislation related to the protection of human rights;
• number of cases related to women’s rights heard in local courts, and their results;
• number of cases related to the legal rights of divorced and widowed women heard in local courts, and results;
• the effect of the enforcement of legislation in terms of treatment of offenders;
• increase/decrease in violence against women;
• rate at which the number of local justices/ prosecutors/ lawyers who are women/men is increasing/decreasing;
• rate at which the number of women/men in the local police force, by rank is
increasing or decreasing.

Political empowerment indicators include:
• percentage of seats held by women in local councils/ decision-making bodies;
• percentage of women in decision-making positions in local government;
• percentage of women in the local civil service;
• percentage of women/men registered as voters/ percentage of eligible women/men who vote; • percentage of women in senior/junior decision-making positions within unions;
• percentage of union members who are women/men;
• number of women who participate in public progress and political campaigning as compared to the number of men.

For economic empowerment, changes should be noted over time:
• changes in employment/unemployment rates of women and men;
• changes in time use in selected activities, particularly greater sharing by household members of unpaid housework and child-care;
• salary/wage differentials between women and men;
• changes in percentage of property owned and controlled by women and men (land, houses, livestock), across socio-economic and ethnic groups;
• average household expenditure of female/male households on education/ health; ability to make small or large purchases independently;
• percentage of available credit, financial and technical support services going to women/men from government/ non-government sources.

Social empowerment, changes over time of:
• numbers of women in local institutions (e.g. women’s associations, income generating groups etc.) to project are population, and numbers of women in positions of power in local institutions;
• extent of training or networking among local women, as compared to men; control of women over fertility decisions (e.g. number of children, number of abortions);
• mobility of women within and outside their residential locality, as compared to men.

In addition to these quantitative indicators are a series of suggested qualitative
indicators comprised of indicator questions to assess empowerment:

• To what degree are women aware of local politics, and their legal rights? Are women more or less aware than men? Does this differ by socio-economic grouping, age or ethnicity? Is this changing over time? • Do women and men perceive that they are becoming more empowered? Why?
• Do women perceive that they now have greater economic autonomy? Why?
• Are changes taking place in the way in which decisions are made in the household, and what is the perceived impact of this?
• Do women make decisions independently of men in their household? What sort of decisions are made independently?

UNICEF has adopted the Women's Empowerment Framework, developed by Sara
Longwe, as an appropriate approach to be used in mainstreaming gender. The
framework states that women's development can be viewed in terms of five levels of
equality, of which empowerment is an essential element at each level.

The levels are:

1. Welfare: this addresses only the basic needs of women, without recognising or
attempting to solve the underlying structural causes which necessitate provision of
welfare services. Women are merely passive beneficiaries of welfare benefits.

2. Access: equality of access to resources such as educational opportunities, land and
credit is essential for women to make meaningful progress. The path of
empowerment is initiated when women recognise lack of access to resources as a
barrier to their growth and overall well-being and take action to redress this.

3. Awareness-raising: for women to take appropriate action to close gender gaps or
gender inequalities, there must be recognition that their problems stem from inherent
structural and institutional discrimination. They must also recognise the role that
women themselves often play in reinforcing the system that restricts their growth.

4. Participation: this is the point where women take decisions equally alongside
men. Mobilisation is necessary in order to reach this level. Women will be
empowered to gain increased representation, by organising themselves and working
collectively, which will lead to increased empowerment and ultimately greater

5. Control: The ultimate level of equality and empowerment, where there is a
balance of power between women and men and neither has dominance. Women are
able to make decisions regarding their lives and the lives of their children and play an
active role in the development process. The contributions of women are fully
recognised and rewarded